Reno- the wording say that the NM cable needs to be 1-1/4" away from the nearest edge of the framing (furring in this case) member so move it away and secure the cable to the masonry wall, then enter into the side of the box.
I know that is the current reading but I am old enough to remember when it was the depth from the face of the framing to the wire, no matter how far it was away. I think the invention of the "stacker" prompted the changing of the reading. If you look at a house built in Florida before the 90s you will see EMT coming down a masonry wall when it is furred and dry walled. I always thought that was the right way to do it. If you don't agree, think about that homeowner hanging a picture while he is barefoot on that terrazzo floor.
They did say EMT and it was in a connector on the metal box end so PA would be grounded (as in operate the O/C device). The usual method was a 10' stick, bent into a 90 at the top of the framing into the attic a way and they shoved the RX down that pipe. One thing that really made it nice for me was I was able to belly far enough into the low part of a 3:12 attic to slip on another EMT and tighten the connector. Then I could yank out the existing 14-2, set a J box where I could get to it, pull in THHN and add a circuit.
If you staple the Romex to the firring strip, you're in violation. If you attach it to the wall, you're barely legal - until you get to the box, where you have to get closer to the wall to enter the KO/fitting.
Conclusion: You either need a deeper wall, or a different wiring method. I don't think -please correct me - that MC has the depth requirement.
Now, there's nothing preventing the remodeler from using much slimmer firring strips - either 1x's or 'hat channels' attached directly to the bricks. In that case, you're really SOL, completely unable to legally run your wires or set your boxes. Hello Wiremold
The 1x is the common method in old Florida houses (no insulation) and that is what prompted the EMT rule in the first place. The AHJs just have a wink and smile attitude about the last couple inches of wire that enters the box, less than 1.25" from the furring