ECN Electrical Forum - Discussion Forums for Electricians, Inspectors and Related Professionals
ECN Shout Chat
Shout Box
Recent Posts
Video: Inventor of the GFCI self-testing shocks
by Bill Addiss. 01/17/18 11:11 PM
FPE in Germany
by HotLine1. 01/17/18 07:07 PM
VDE 0100 to introduce AFCIs
by LongRunner. 01/17/18 10:32 AM
Fujifilm Recalls Power Adapter Wall Plugs
by Admin. 01/16/18 07:04 PM
Air Compressor feeder conductor sizing
by Potseal. 01/15/18 09:08 PM
New in the Gallery:
Housebilding DIY wiring
SE cable question
Who's Online Now
0 registered members (), 7 guests, and 10 spiders.
Key: Admin, Global Mod, Mod
Active Threads | Active Posts | Unanswered Today | Since Yesterday | This Week
Photo Gallery
1 hour ago
Well, I've thought about it in the meantime, and here are my ideas for an improved version:
  • Fully enclosed surface boxes, e.g. Clipsal 238 (however, 2000 Series surrounds will overhang it, according to the document A0000143); alternatively, No. 449A blocks with 449AP backing plates
  • Clipsal 2025QC (Quick Connect) outlets? (The connections to them are meant to be more reliable than screws, not just quicker. However, if using the No. 238 boxes, I might end up using the No. 25 outlets instead to avoid the overhanging surround issue.)
  • Conduit to protect the cables (or would the orange circular cables comply?)
  • Closer intervals, say 15 or 16cm instead of the 20cm I chose originally (though rather than for safety reasons, this is because at the present spacing, my knee is prone to bumping into the left outlet.)
  • If there's a way of using metal screws for the inlet while keeping them double-insulated from the live parts, then I'd like to do so for the mechanical strength (compared to using the plastic screws - not that those aren't strong enough, but I like things to be rugged). (Maybe cover them with neutral-cure silicone?)
8 4,211 Read More
General Discussion Area
7 hours ago
6 80 Read More
Non-US Electrical Systems & Trades
11 hours ago
FPE here in the US was Federal Pacific Electric/Federal Pacific Electrical with FPE as their company logo. As I mentioned earlier, they had a plant here in Newark, NJ back in the day.

Their products ranged from the ‘famous’ Stab-Loc’ CBs, panels, switchgear, fuseable disconnect switches, to transformers (dry type is all I seen) and probably a lot of other items. The ‘Stab-Loc’ logo was also on their line of bolt-on CBs, as well as the ‘lug-lug’ breakers. Their demise was related to the ‘Stab-Loc’ failure to trip, and loss of UL listing. There are still many FPE panels around, they are a favorite item for the Home Inspectors (not AHJs) to write up as “dangerous”, ‘Must be replaced” etc.
20 4,622 Read More
Non-US Electrical Systems & Trades
Yesterday at 03:32 PM
30mA, generally (though 10mA RCD outlets are available for medical applications). At least 2 RCDs are required in an Australian home, and each RCD may feed a maximum of 3 subcircuits.

Normally we use the Multiple Earthed Neutral system (similar to Protective Multiple Earthing in the UK), which does not require a main RCD as used with TT systems.
10 5,642 Read More
Safety News and Product Recalls
Yesterday at 12:04 AM
Fujifilm Recalls Power Adapter Wall Plugs Sold with Digital Cameras Due to Shock Hazard

Recall Date: January 16, 2017
Recall Number: 18-079

Recall Summary

Name of Product:
Power adapter wall plugs sold with Fujifilm digital cameras

Hazard: The power adapter wall plug can crack, break or detach and remain in the wall and expose live electrical contacts, posing a shock hazard.

Remedy: Replace
Consumers should immediately stop using the recalled power adapter wall plugs and contact Fujifilm for a free replacement. Consumers can continue to charge the camera using the USB cable attached to a computer.

Consumer Contact:
Fujifilm toll-free at 833-613-1200 from 9 a.m. to 8 p.m. ET Monday through Friday, email at, or online at and click on “Support & Contact” for more information.

Pictures available here:

Recall Details

About 270,000 (In addition, about 24,000 were sold in Canada.)

This recall involves AC-5VF power adapter wall plugs sold with Fujifilm digital camera models XP90, XP95, XP120, XP125, X-A3 and X-A10. The digital cameras were sold in a variety of colors. The recalled wall plugs are black and are combined with a power adapter and USB cord that plugs into the adapter. Model number “AC-5VF” is printed on the back of the power adapter. The serial number is printed on the bottom of the camera or under the battery compartment lid. To check your serial number, visit

None reported
Sold At:
Mass merchandisers, electronics and membership club stores nationwide and online at and other websites. The XP90 and XP95 were sold from June 2016 through January 2018, the XP120 and XP125 were sold from January 2017 through January 2018, the X-A3 was sold from October 2016 through January 2018, and the X-A10 was sold from February 2017 through January 2018. The digital cameras were sold for between $160 and $600 with the power adaptor wall plugs.
FUJIFILM North America Corporation, of Valhalla, N.Y.

FUJIFILM North America Corporation, of Valhalla, N.Y.

Manufactured In:
0 30 Read More
Canadian Electrical Code Topics
01/16/18 02:08 AM
Haven't heard back from the manufacturer yet but I was able to get more detailed information from the supplier. The specifications show that for the model I am supplying power to #10 AWG is the minimum recommended conductor size. So, no surprises.
9 108 Read More
General Discussion Area
01/15/18 02:57 PM
It seems that the proliferation of import items are avoiding any real certifications. There are a lot of items similar to the one stated in this thread on websites like Amazon & EBay. It looks like a great way to sell.

And, Thank You ~s~ for the ‘17 version of 324.12.
10 170 Read More
General Discussion Area
01/13/18 03:21 PM
Originally Posted by HotLine1
BTW, it’s nice to see sparky (~s~) back & posting. Trumpy too!!

I agree, but if you tell Sparky that I'll deny it! wink

12 355 Read More
Non-US Electrical Systems & Trades
01/13/18 12:58 PM
Diazed fuses often have a flat strip of silver/copper in them with holes at certain locations to create a weak point set for the current the fuse supposed to operate at. The screw in bottle type fuse is often filled with fine quartz sand to ensure quenching of the arc. Those fuses can get very hot when running at full load and good clean and tight connections are a must.
The DIN wedge type fuses are also build in a similar way and show the breaking capacity in kA's. Good HRC fuses are 80 or 120 kA rated.
6 313 Read More
Occupational Safety Discussion
01/13/18 12:52 AM
M-m-maybe , but who hasn't shorted a circuit to find it HotOne?

I was actually told to by the owner of a facility years ago , made it go 'boom', and out comes a gaggle of mad secretaries who lost all their computer work....~S~
22 410 Read More
Electrical Theory and Applications
01/13/18 12:25 AM
Sorry to hear. Good luck.
12 6,821 Read More
General Discussion Area
01/12/18 02:14 AM
Originally Posted by Trumpy
Hey guys,
Been my first new thread in ages.
I hope the festive season was kind to you all and you had a good break from work.
Another year has passed, hopefully 2018 goes well for you all.
Have a good one!.

Same to you Mike!

3 454 Read More
General Discussion Area
01/11/18 11:57 PM
Check out the Photo Gallery “How about some EMT”

Store is still there, install & pic was 2009.
10 201 Read More
Photo Gallery
01/11/18 11:55 PM
I’m surprised that this store is still in the mall!!
7 5,088 Read More
NEC & other Code issues
01/11/18 01:40 AM
Much appreciated - that answer was right on target.

Article 770.48 was the motivation for my asking the question, but I didn't think of the Chapter 3 information regarding raceway components that you pointed out. Thanks.
2 64 Read More
Safety News and Product Recalls
01/10/18 05:20 PM
from ESA Ontario (Canada):

Re: Federal Pioneer Stab-Lok breakers and NC015 Breaker Replacement Program.
0 32 Read More
Safety News and Product Recalls
01/10/18 05:16 PM
Originally Posted by sparky
I'd be interested to know who the ESA are in Canada....~S~

"The Electrical Safety Authority (ESA) is an administrative authority mandated by the Government of Ontario to enhance public electrical safety in the province. We are both a safety regulator and advocate."

2 39 Read More
General Discussion Area
01/10/18 12:35 PM
There is another possible cause and that's a bad chemical mix in the PVC. I believe that mostly black PVC is affected.
Stripping these won't help, the copper is black on the full length.
8 541 Read More
Non-US Electrical Systems & Trades
01/09/18 10:45 PM
That just feels like the kind of stunt a totally incompetent DIYer with much more self-confidence than skills and knowledge would pull! I once had the dubious pleasure of viewing an 1840s flat in Vienna that was wired in a somewhat similar fashion, perhaps by the poor sods who rented it without any sort of heat (didn't see any evidence of active chimneys, definitely no central heating whatsoever). We're talking 80 sq. m. (so something over 800 sq. ft.) and the incoming mains was 1.5 mm2, no earth! If there was any earthed wiring at all (I seem to remember there was, although the place had been partly gutted with barely any sockets and switches remaining) it had been connected to the water pipes - legal up until 2001 but this story took place in 2014 I think. The supply had been disconnected and the Neozed main fuse showed no trace of key rings but from the scorch marks the supply wires left above the surface-mounted consumer unit I'd suspect at least 25 A. The loo was wired with loose 0.75 mm2 flex and pattress boxes dangling on the flex, everything else was at least inside the walls.

On top of that the whole place was damp, the floor boards rotted and all the windows looked right onto the pavement - ground floor, facing north too, so it was glum. Needless to say the friend who was originally interested didn't take it. I strongly suspect before trying to sell it off at a huge profit a greedy landlord rented the place to poor immigrants with little knowledge of Austrian laws at a vastly inflated rate (there's a pretty tight limit on rents for places like this, while you can for example legally rent out living space without any plumbing, the maximum rent is close to non-existent).
5 185 Read More
Electrical Nostalgia
01/09/18 10:23 PM
At least in Austria and Germany "Does anyone recognise these switches and can tell me where to get spares?" is a fairly common question. Designs rarely last more than say 20 years, sometimes less, and replacement covers usually need to match quite exactly to fit even physically, let alone visually. Occasionally manufacturers re-design even the switch mechanisms enough to make them impossible to replace.

Actually it's more like the other way round - when a 1987 Siemens switch shorted out (well to be more precise the wiring between the switch and fixture shorted to earth and the switch contacts welded themselves shut) and burnt at my parents' office I was seriously surprised I could fit the old covers to a new switch! I'd have hated to replace an entire vertical bank of 8 individual switches!
13 291 Read More
General Discussion Area
01/09/18 05:58 PM
This seemed to be a smooth transition. It came up without a glitch for me.
5 111 Read More
Safety News and Product Recalls
01/09/18 05:30 PM
ESA has worked with other organizations to gather information on electrical fires, deaths and incidents across the province.

The culmination of this data is presented in the Ontario Electrical Safety Report, that is produced annually.

It can be downloaded here:
0 20 Read More
General Discussion Area
01/06/18 09:57 PM
We have several mission critical facilities that use an ungrounded delta system.
In the event of a ground fault the system stays energized until it can be corrected.
The only time that the system goes down is when there is a second ground fault before the first one gets cleared.

An ungrounded delta is kinda capacitively coupled to the Earth, so a ground detector device is used.
There are 3 lights wired from phase to a ground rod and all glow continuously at the same brightness.
If one of the phases has a ground fault that light will go out and the other 2 get much brighter.

That tells you which phase the ground fault is on...but finding where it is becomes very challenging.
One of our facilities has had a ground fault on one of the phases for several years...and the maintenance folks are still trying to chase it down.
I think there may be a ground in 2 places on the same phase; which is like trying to find the 2 bad bulbs in an old string of Christmas lights.
2 80 Read More
Non-US Electrical Systems & Trades
01/05/18 01:02 AM
We havnt had any snow here but a few miles inland they did. Wish we got proper snow good excuse to stay in bed Lol
3 102 Read More
Photos for General Discussion
12/30/17 01:14 PM
Klein stuck in a weird place ( 'branded accessories' ) on their website:
3 156 Read More
Page 1 of 2 1 2

2017 Master Electrician Exam Preparation Combos
2017 NEC Electrician
Exam Prep Combos:
Master / Journeyman


Member Spotlight
Posts: 257
Joined: February 2013
Show All Member Profiles 
Top Posters(30 Days)
sparky 22
Admin 20
Potseal 13
Popular Topics(Views)
243,535 Are you busy
180,339 Re: Forum
170,827 Need opinion
Powered by UBB.threads™ PHP Forum Software 7.6.1
(Release build 20180101)
Page Time: 0.024s Queries: 6 (0.005s) Memory: 0.9956 MB (Peak: 1.0493 MB) Zlib enabled. Server Time: 2018-01-18 11:29:05 UTC