ccdave, No. Permits, if required, are issued by the state or local government having jurisdiction over land use and building code enforcement. The NEC is written as "suitable for adoption" --- but the NFPA is not a law making body in the strictest of terms (except perhaps by default - i.e. it does interact with gov agencies and Congress --- and where is it not adopted?)
Almost all local goverments require permits(land use and tax valuation); most adopt the NEC; many more modify these NEC Articles; and some choose to selectively enforce or even not to enforce it at all. In the event a local gov does not adopt NEC or other codes, or enforce them, chances are its Articles are still enforceable under most state laws. This subject is, one of few, more complicated than the Code itself.
[This message has been edited by Len_B (edited 02-11-2003).]
To illustrate Len_B's information, CA is a ICBO U-code state (for now) and the Uniform Administrative Code sec 301 gives a description of when permits are required, including electrical permits. (Actually, it basically says that if the work is in the technical code (NEC) a permit is required, then the UAC lists a few exceptions.)
Here in NJ you need a permit for almost anything. You are allowed to replace up to 5 devices, (switches, receptacles) replace parts of light fixtures (such as a ballast) without a permit. Everything else requires a permit. Even if you change a 2 prong receptacle to a ground fault circuit interupter receptacle, you are suppose to get a permit. This is a state law put out by the Board of electrical examiners in this state. These are the people who give out the electrical contractors licenses.