for dishwashers some inspectors require lockouts, and some don't, but 422.31(B) says you need them, and some guys that don't want to use them say the dishwasher has a unit switch so don't need them per 422.34
422.31 uses 1/8 horsepower or 300VA to say either a disconnect within sight is needed or a lockout, so i assume this is why you don't need the lockout for the range hood fan, but i've seen some electricians use them
i think 424.19(C) is used the same way for wall heaters so they don't always use lockouts for them saying they have unit switches
do you use them? i'm not sure what a unit switch is. it's not in the definitions
First of all I must say to forgive my ignorance. I am stronger on the OSHA side of things than the NEC side.
OSHA has a provision in LOTO that if it is a cord operated machine, and you are in sole possession of the cord, you do not have to lock out the machine. So if you are working on a dishwasher and you unplug it, do the work, and then plug it back in you are in compliance with OSHA. However you cannot leave the dishwasher while you are working on it. If you did leave the dishwasher then you would have to lock it out.
Unfortunately I am in California and Cal/OSHA does not have this provision. All machines must be locked out when they are being serviced. Even if you remove the fuses you have to lock the fuse box.
Like I said this is from the OSHA side of things. You need to check if your state has it's own OSHA, 23 state have their own OSHA programs, and see what their provisions for LOTO are. In fact in CA it is not called LOTO, it is called Lock Out Block Out.
Like I said I know more about OSHA than the NEC. Does the NEC have a provison for LOTO? I am not at work right now or I would look it up.
To paraphrase what you said, all new equipemtn installed has to have the ability for LOBO. At least in an industrial setting.
I would not think that locking the panel door would be sufficient for LOBO. First what if there is a problem and you need to get in the panel fast to throw a different breaker in the panel. Also, at least Cal/OSHA would take the interpretation that someone could remove the panel cover and flip the breaker. They are a lot of fun. As I explained it to the people in our plant. When a machine is locked out it must be physically impossible to restart the machine without removing the lock. At least under Cal/OSHA.
BTW. Has anyone found any good lockouts for breakers. We have about every type you could think of and we have not found any good ones yet. Scott