ECN Electrical Forum - Discussion Forums for Electricians, Inspectors and Related Professionals
ECN Shout Chat
Top Posters(30 Days)
Potseal 11
Recent Posts
1913 American Electrician's Handbook
by annemarie1. 07/27/17 03:10 PM
600 KW 120/208 3 Phase Y protection
by Yooperup. 07/24/17 12:20 PM
Green House wiring
by ghost307. 07/20/17 09:10 AM
Permit Snafus...AHJs and Contractors Jump in
by HotLine1. 07/18/17 08:06 PM
New in the Gallery:
Housebilding DIY wiring
Popular Topics(Views)
239,365 Are you busy
174,822 Re: Forum
167,213 Need opinion
Who's Online Now
0 registered members (), 69 guests, and 6 spiders.
Key: Admin, Global Mod, Mod
Previous Thread
Next Thread
Print Thread
Rate This Thread
#60107 - 12/21/05 03:22 PM Variac-controlled transformer ohm's law problem  
Spark Master Flash  Offline
Member
Joined: Jul 2003
Posts: 141
Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
I built a hot wire cutter. My nichrome wire has 1.5 ohms of resistance. When I feed my hot wire from a 12 volt transformer controlled by a 120v variac, I can control the amount of voltage from the variac, therefore controlling the voltage from the transformer.

As I turn the voltage up, I notice that my hot wire cutter starts cutting foam at around 46 volts measured at the variac, which is about 4.6 volts measured coming out of the transformer.

So here are my questions.

If my wire has 1.5 ohms of resistance, what does that tell me?

Let's call the voltage from the 12v transformer 4.5 volts for simplicity's sake. Well, with 1.5 ohms and 4.5 volts, that means I've got a 3 amp load, or 13.5 watts, right?

Or does it mean that I've got 45 volts coming out of the variac, and with a 1.5 ohm resistance in the nichrome wire, that means I've got a 30 amp load, or 135 watts? That can't be right, my variac has a 10 amp fuse.

When I started, I thought that with 1.5 ohms of resistance at 12 volts, that would mean 8 amps and 96 watts. But the nichrome wire will blow apart at that amperage. That's why I have to control the voltage with a variac. So as I reduce the voltage, the amps are reduced, but the resistance stays the same...right?

I have a little problem figuring ohm's law from one side of the transformer to the other. Can somebody dial me in?

SMF


"When in doubt, short it out"

Work Gear for Electricians and the Trades

#60108 - 12/21/05 03:43 PM Re: Variac-controlled transformer ohm's law problem  
gfretwell  Offline


Member
Joined: Jul 2004
Posts: 9,099
Estero,Fl,usa
The resistance of nichrome wire changes as it heats up. You really have to measure the current and applied voltage to see what the resistance is.


Greg Fretwell

#60109 - 12/21/05 03:46 PM Re: Variac-controlled transformer ohm's law problem  
BPiersel  Offline
Member
Joined: Jan 2005
Posts: 18
Minnesota
Let's start at the nichrome wire. With 1.5 ohms and 4.5 V, the current is I=V/R=4.5 V/1.5 ohm=3 A. The power is P=I*V=3 A*4.5 V=13.5 W. (You can also do P=V^2/R=(4.5 V)^2/1.5 ohm = 13.5 W.)

What about the primary side of the 12V transformer? If we assume an ideal transformer to make the calculations easy, power in = power out, so the input is also 13.5 W. Since the voltage is 45 V, you can determine the current by I=P/V=13.5 W/45 V=0.3 A.

The same holds true for the variac. If the input voltage is 120 V, the current is I=P/V=13.5 W/120 V=0.1125 A.

All of this is ignoring transformer losses and assumes the power factor is 1.0 for the entire system.

Brian


#60110 - 12/21/05 03:54 PM Re: Variac-controlled transformer ohm's law problem  
Spark Master Flash  Offline
Member
Joined: Jul 2003
Posts: 141
Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
So I could apply a 90 amp load on the secondary (12 volt) side and it wouldn't blow my 10 amp fuse on the variac...right?


"When in doubt, short it out"

#60111 - 12/22/05 01:18 AM Re: Variac-controlled transformer ohm's law problem  
Larry Fine  Offline
Member
Joined: Feb 2005
Posts: 693
Richmond, VA
Right. Of course, this assumes the transformers are capable of that current.


Larry Fine
Fine Electric Co.
fineelectricco.com

#60112 - 12/22/05 01:20 AM Re: Variac-controlled transformer ohm's law problem  
Spark Master Flash  Offline
Member
Joined: Jul 2003
Posts: 141
Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
Thanks Larry, that helps a lot.

SMF


"When in doubt, short it out"


Member Spotlight
HCE727
HCE727
Delaware County, PA, USA
Posts: 186
Joined: November 2005
Show All Member Profiles 
Featured:

2017 Master Electrician Exam Preparation Combos
2017 NEC Electrician
Exam Prep Combos:
Master / Journeyman

 

Shout Box
Powered by UBB.threads™ PHP Forum Software 7.6.0
Page Time: 0.014s Queries: 14 (0.003s) Memory: 0.7769 MB (Peak: 0.9223 MB) Zlib enabled. Server Time: 2017-07-28 00:39:36 UTC