I know we have covered the topics of ESD (Electro Static Discharge) here at ECN - most likely discussed in detail a few times!
I just cannot recall when or where.
Try searching this area (the General Discussions area), along with the Electrical Theory and Applications area, for topics such as "ESD" or "Static Electricity".
Alternately, do a Google search using the term "ESD" or Static Discharges/Static Electricity.
Likely to have a Google of hits!
Any particulars you are looking for, or just trying to find all you can (all areas will be very complex!).
Simple explanation: ESD is generally from one Material "Scraping" Electrons off of another Material - thus leaving the "Donor" Material with a much higher Positive Charge, and resulting in the "Scraping" Material having a much higher Negative Charge.
Different Materials have different Static potentials with each other, which follow as "Most Negative/Least Positive" to "Most Positive/Least Negative" between two types of Materials.
BTW; once you study ESD in full detail, you will see that Lightning does not act anything like ESD!... but that's another story!