That's a good question, my best guess is that because each locality within each individual state can and often does decide for themselves. Having everyone agree on the same thing would be a tremendous undertaking.
Some states, like New York, have no state licensing. It is up to the individual Counties and townships - sometimes individual towns to determine their licensing requirements. Some areas in the country are still using the 1996 NEC.
Then there's the money issue. National licensing, even State Licensing would mean lost revenues to individual areas. They would have to figure how to recoop that loss without raising taxes.