In the illustration linked from the NEC it shows 4 feet between receptacles.The code states "Receptacle outlets shall be installed so that no point along the wall line is more than 600 mm (24 in.) measured horizontally from a receptacle outlet in that space."
Clear as mud. once again the NEC manages to make a ruling even more muddled than it ever was to begin with.
(1) Wall Counter-top Spaces. A receptacle outlet shall be installed at each wall counter-top space that is 300 mm (12 in.) or wider. Receptacle outlets shall be installed so that no point along the wall line is more than 600 mm (24 in.) measured horizontally from a receptacle outlet in that space. See related Illustration
Exception: Receptacle outlets shall not be required on a wall directly behind a range, counter-mounted cooking unit, or sink in the installation described in Figure 210.52(C)(1).
Seems pretty clear to me ... unless you are not sure how these things are measured.
Receptacle spacing is determined by measuring, as it were, along the baseboard (or, with counters, the backsplash). There is no allowance for the height a receptacle may be above the floor (or counter). Things that interrupt the 'usable' path (doors, sinks, ranges) are not included in the measure. If the path takes a turn, the measure follows the turn - as shown in that corner.
Legal line aside .... go buy a cheap toaster. If the cord can't reach a receptacle, you probably need to add one at that point.
The key word is point. No point shall be more than 2 feet. This same confusion occurs when receptacles in habitable rooms are to be no more than six feet from a point. The receptacles are twelve feet apart.
I have heard of some that did not interpret this measurement as being along the back part of the countertop and actually wanted a receptacle mounted on the 24" depth of the side wall where the countertop meet the wall.
It should be noted, they say no point "along the wall line"... It is not a radial sweep across the width of the counter. I have heard arguments about corners.
I think it should be changed, though, to "any point on the counter" within 2', though. What good is a rule to allow 2' cords to be used anywhere if they still can only be used butted up against the wall?
I know, I know, counters are 2' deep, and we'd need a continuous outlet for this. Really, it begs the question ... why the $&#&#$^%$^ are they only 2' cords to begin with? Why can't I get a blender with a 4' cord and a lamp with a 12' cord? Why always the rinky short cord?