Frank is on the right track. See 380-8(a) This is definitely too high.
240-24 is also a good call, see the definition of readily accessible.
110-12 for the unplugged holes, includes time clock on right.
Working space- the ceiling grid is in the way as is the wall that barely shows in the picture (left side), conduit that is between the panel & time clock, liquidtight flex on left side of panel. 110-26(a)(1), 110-26(a)(2),110-26(a)(3), a case can be made for 110-26(d) and 110-26(f)(1)(a). Whew.
As for the #8's & the tape job to the conduit, 300-10.