You have answered your own question. Article 408.2 states the following:
408.2 Other Articles. Switches, circuit breakers, and over-current devices used on switchboards, panelboards, and distribution boards, and their enclosures, shall comply with this article and also with the requirements of Articles 240, 250, 312, 314, 404, and other articles that apply. Switchboards and panelboards in hazardous (classified) locations shall comply with the requirements of Articles 500 through 517.
So, the panelboard cannot be located in the clothes closet because of Article 240.24(D).