Hi Polar Bear-
Cat 5e 2 pair is usually used for data communications specifically ethernet and token ring. These data networks usually use one pair for data receive and the other pair for data transmit. I have seen this type of cable come in 2 pair and 4 pair. The pairs are twisted together tightly to prevent crosstalk interference between pairs. Usually for data-comm infrastructure 4-pair cable is used since you need a minimum of 2 pairs if something goes wrong with one pair of wires you still have 2 spares to fall back on, before you have to re-pull the run. 2-pair cable can be pulled to save money but in the long run it could be risky.
Since you are using only one pair this is most probably used for analog voice communications of some sort.
Hope this helps -