Increasingly, European countries are harmonising their electrical regulations and are cooperating on standards through CENELEC, (French: Comité Européen de Normalisation Électrotechnique) is the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization.
However, you still cannot really generalise about "Europe" when it comes to electrical systems. There are some huge differences, and grounding systems is one of the areas where those crop up most.
While the systems are generally all very safe, there are big differences from country to country in the exact technical specifications of the grounding system. They can even vary from region to region depending on things like ground conductivity and the age of the local network.
TN-C-S systems are normal in some countries, e.g. here in Ireland. And these typically include local grounding electrodes as well as a bond to neutral (made by the power company) before the meter. All plumbing must also be bonded and you'll see things like ground wires running from the hot to the cold pipe under every sink to ensure no issues occur.
TT is common in other countries, and in some rural areas here and on some old urban installations too. In this case, an RCD (GFCI) is required across the entire installation at the meter.
There are also various variations of TN systems in use in different eras of network and different countries.
Really though, you can't generalise. You'd need to get specific information for each country.