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#144783 - 01/17/06 11:00 AM Old books
C-H Offline

Member

Registered: 09/17/02
Posts: 1508
Loc: Stockholm, Sweden
In my search for old bids I found an old book on the net.

It's from 1893 and in Swedish, but it's over 800 pages long and goes into the details of light bulb and arc light design. It makes references to what seems to be every electrical researcher in the world.

Even electricians get their time in the spotlight. Page 502 "The famous electrician Brush has for his house in Cleveland built[...]"

It also contains an historical perspective with a description of the London gas lights.

This could make for reading for ages....

Some of the goodies is that it lists England (Swedes makes no distinction between England and Britain) as using 110V. When the Englishmen installed arc lights, these were typically designed for 45 to 47V and wired in pairs: 45 + 45V = 90V. The 20V difference was dumped with resistors.

For Sweden, it is unspecific, but the calculations are based around 95-96V which indicate that a 95V system was used.
http://runeberg.org/grdahlel/0507.html

Here is an ampacity table for cables, originally taken from "Manuel pratique de Eléctricien. Paris 1892, p. 237."
http://runeberg.org/grdahlel/0492.html

It wrongly assumes a linear relationship between conductor cross sectional area and ampacity. 1.0 mm2 is listed as 10A max if it is a single uninsulated wire in free air.

For cotton and rubber cables it recommends 4A/mm2 and 2.5A/mm2 respectively.

It also notes that the commonly used sizes for wiring lights in buildings are 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm dia., meaning between 0.8 and 1.8 mm2.

The cables were placed on walls in the wooden channels depicted here:
http://runeberg.org/grdahlel/0495.html

It goes on to mention the revolutionary new approach: Conduit!

It had been introduced by "Interior conduit and insulation company" in New York and now sold in Europe by "S. Bergmann & C:o" in Berlin. These were made of paper impregnated with a molten insulating compound. This made them water resistant and gave smooth surfaces.

The size ranged from 7 to 48 mm and 3 m (10 ft?) long.

Schematic here:
http://runeberg.org/grdahlel/0496.html

Puuuhhhh.... There is just so much to write, but I'm tired. Sorry folks!

[This message has been edited by C-H (edited 01-17-2006).]

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#144784 - 01/17/06 11:12 AM Re: Old books
C-H Offline

Member

Registered: 09/17/02
Posts: 1508
Loc: Stockholm, Sweden
Ad from "The Manufacturer and Builder" 1893

Interior conduit & Insulation Co. New York Factory 527-537 West Thirty-fourth street; General Offices: 16 and 18 Broad street. Catalogue and Price-List.

This company is engaged in the manufacture of an interior conduit intended for the use in buildings in which electric lighting is installed. The conduits are light, water-proofed and insulated, the purpose thereof being to enclose the wires therein throught the entire lenght of the system within the building. The protection of the wires from accidents of every description by the use of this system, is too obvious to require more than mention. The conduits have come to be looked upon very favourably by the electric companies and by the fire underwriters, and are coming extensively into use.

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#144785 - 01/17/06 11:24 AM Re: Old books
C-H Offline

Member

Registered: 09/17/02
Posts: 1508
Loc: Stockholm, Sweden
Off topic:

Why is English so easy! Unchanged between now and then?!?!?!

The Swedish books and documents are barely intelligble! Spelling is way different, grammar and style not like today and the words vocabulary quite unlike what I'm used to.

Even the latest, a 1955 book has different spelling and grammar. Look at this about subpanels:

"I Vapenrummet och i korridoren två trappor upp insattes taflorna i isolerade gjutjärnsskåp, hvilka inhöggos i muren, så att blott locken av dem blefvo synliga, övriga taflor i träskåp"

would have been written today as

"I vapenrummet och i korridoren tv√• trappor upp sattes sk√•pen i isolerade gjutj√§rnssk√•p som huggits in i muren s√• att bara locken var synliga. √Ėvriga sk√•p sattes i tr√§sk√•p."

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#144786 - 01/17/06 01:32 PM Re: Old books
Alan Belson Offline
Member

Registered: 03/23/05
Posts: 1801
Loc: Mayenne N. France
C-H;
English changes too, perhaps not so fast lately. Here's Geoffry Chaucer (1340?-1400), in the 'Prologue to the Canterbury Tales':

A Cook they haddé with hem for the nones*,
To boille the chiknés with the marybones,
And poudré-marchant tart and galyngale.
Wel koud he knowe a draughte of Londoun ale**;


*for the trip- ie he is the Pilgrims' cook, this being about a pilgrimage.
** Really strong beer!

And here's Shakespeare 200 years later in 'The Merchant of Venice', written ?1590:

Beg that thou mayst have leave to hang thyself;
And yet, thy wealth being forfeit to the state,
Thou hast not left the value of a cord;
Therefore thou must be hang'd at the state's charge.


Everthing changes; take the word 'nice', now the most used adjective in English:
To Chaucer, a 'nyce' man was on idiot, a dolt. [Latin; [i]nescivs[i/]; ignorant.]
To Shakepeare, a 'nice' woman was laviscious, sexy, curvy.
There are currently over 600,000 English words in the Oxford English Dictionary. You are doing well if you know a tenth of them!

Alan

Wroghte, and afterwarde an asteriske deleyte!


[This message has been edited by Alan Belson (edited 01-17-2006).]

[This message has been edited by Alan Belson (edited 01-17-2006).]
_________________________
Wood work but can't!

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#144787 - 01/17/06 09:06 PM Re: Old books
yaktx Offline
Member

Registered: 02/19/03
Posts: 286
Loc: Austin, Texas, USA
Chaucer and Shakespeare are commonly cited milestones in the evolution of English, but the major change was far more compressed in time than 200 years. William Caxton:

 Quote:
And certaynly our langage now used varyeth ferre from that which was used and spoken when I was borne.


He was born about 1422, a generation after Chaucer died.

All languages change, except dead ones. Perhaps the most well-known change in contemporary English is the meaning of the word gay.

[This message has been edited by yaktx (edited 01-18-2006).]

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#144788 - 01/17/06 09:14 PM Re: Old books
RODALCO Offline
Member

Registered: 12/08/05
Posts: 863
Loc: Titirangi, Akld, New Zealand
Great those old books.
Topics are quite often very well explained and good schematics are provided too sometimes.
Amazing how the technical Swedish is reasonable understandable as well.

I like the old Hawkins Electrical guide, second edition 1921. and Audells new Electric library 1929 which I bought the complete series off for about 40$NZ. 27$US
total 20 books!! outside of the pages are covered in gold.
Second hand bookshops are the best places to source these old books if one is interested.
_________________________
The product of rotation, excitation and flux produces electricty.

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#144789 - 01/17/06 09:17 PM Re: Old books
yaktx Offline
Member

Registered: 02/19/03
Posts: 286
Loc: Austin, Texas, USA
 Quote:
The cables were placed on walls in the wooden channels depicted here:


This exact method was used in the USA well into the '20s. I remember seeing this in one of my favorite restaurants in Connecticut when I lived there. It fed about 20 cleat lampholders above the front door, and was still in use!

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#144790 - 01/18/06 01:10 AM Re: Old books
Alan Belson Offline
Member

Registered: 03/23/05
Posts: 1801
Loc: Mayenne N. France
Here's Arthur Arnold, AMIMecHE, [editor of 'The Power Engineer' (UK) ] writing in the mid 1920s :

"In the early days of electric lighting in houses, wooden casing and capping was the universal method of protection and support. So long as sufficient "ways" were used, and the surroundings were dry, joints were avoided and wires kept separated, the system was fairly satisfactory, although it obviously did not decrease the the fire risk of buildings in which it was used. When wires were "bunched" into the grooves, often as many as could be crammed therein, irrespective of polarity, and the casing was omitted at corners and under plaster and so forth, the system became positively dangerous. At the best of times there was a temptation to omit careful mitreing of the casing under floorboards, in cellars, and other semi-concealed positions, with the result that somewhat inadequately protected conductors were exposed to all kinds of atmospheric and other influences. Also, in any case, the erection of casing and capping called for a good deal of time and skill; given these it made a presentable job. In addition to being an electrician, the wireman had to be a carpenter. Considerable ingenuity was requisite where wires crossed and the "ways" approaching a distribution box made an imposing array of woodwork, if anything approaching the ideal of "one wire, one way" was to be achieved. Because the system lent itself to scamped erection and was not damp or vermin proof, it has practically disappeared for new work, its place being taken by steel conduit, or one of the special systems, of which there are now quite a number."

Well, it's practically the 'same' English used today, with some words now rarely used, plus grammatical changes; we tend to omit a comma before 'and' now.

Alan

edit typos

[This message has been edited by Alan Belson (edited 01-18-2006).]
_________________________
Wood work but can't!

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#144791 - 01/18/06 05:08 AM Re: Old books
Alan Belson Offline
Member

Registered: 03/23/05
Posts: 1801
Loc: Mayenne N. France
William Caxton also wrote:
"Thereore, I, William Caxton, a symple person, have endevored me to wryte fyrst over all the said Book of Polycronycon, and sommewhat have changed the rude and old Englisshe that is to wéte, Certain words which in these days be neither usyd ne understanden."
[Printed some time after 1474/5, when he set up his first press.]

Caxton left England for Bruges in 1446 at the age of 24, and returned in 1476 when he was 54. So after spending two generations out of contact with English "as she is spoke", the changes must have been some shock! Bear in mind too that he is writing for a very small and rich audience- I suspect Tom Plowman and his kin carried on talking in their own old vernacular, far away from the thin atmosphere of the ivory towers for a few generations after.
The massive language changes might have had something to do with the Black Death, (pneumonic and bubonic plagues), which decimated Europe in the middle ages. In 1347-50 and 1360-61 and at times after, this disease carried off around a quarter of the populace, predominantly the elderly and the poor. The effects are reckoned to have been greater than a nuclear war would have now- Englands population collapsed from 3,700,000 in 1346 to 2,100,000 by 1400.

PS. I got an e-mail last week from my neice in England. It was written in 'text'[mobile phone speak]. Old tite, ere wi go agen!

Alan

edit typo

[This message has been edited by Alan Belson (edited 01-18-2006).]
_________________________
Wood work but can't!

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#144792 - 01/18/06 08:33 PM Re: Old books
yaktx Offline
Member

Registered: 02/19/03
Posts: 286
Loc: Austin, Texas, USA
 Quote:
In addition to being an electrician, the wireman had to be a carpenter.


I guess that's a recipe for disaster right there!

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