"Can more amps be induced through a transformer, than the windings alow?"
Specifically as your question is stated? No.
But if you are asking if a transformer can supply more current than the amount calculated from its nameplate Kva rating, then yes.
Theoretically if supplied from an unlimited bus, a transformer can supply the inverse of its rated impedance. So if a transformer has a 2% impedance (i.e., 2/100), then it theoretically can supply 50 times its rated full load current.
"I was always of the understanding that w/out primary protection, if the secondary side is protected correctly, you could burn the transformer."
If a fault occurs between the secondary terminals of the transformer and the low side protection, then the transformer would burn up without primary protection. Is that what you were asking?
[This message has been edited by WFO (edited 10-27-2006).]