Welcome to ECN!!!
Sounds like the Motor is a Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) Motor, as there is no Centrifugal Start Switch, and there is a Capacitor involved.
If there was no Capacitor or Start Switch, then the Motor would be either a Shaded Pole, Repulsion Start, or some variety of Commutator Motor.
Anyhow, to describe the PSC Motor's function, the Start ("Auxiliary") Winding + Run ("Main") Winding are always connected to the Circuit thruout Start and full speed Run. No Start Switch is included.
The Current through the Aux. Winding is limited by both the Impedance of the Aux. Winding, and the Impedance of the Capacitor.
There are some PSC Motor Schematic in the Technical Reference section, however these Drawings are describing the arrangements typically used with Ceiling Fans - there is an Autotransformer included with the Motor Windings.
Here is one of the Schematics for your references:
Figure 1: PSC Motor with Intregal Autotransformer.
Link to that page:Schematics For 1Ø Split Phase Motors, Series 3http://www.electrical-contractor.net/for...ge/2#Post148744
I will draft up a Drawing of the PSC Motor without the Autotransformer winding, and with Forward / Reverse Controls via Switch or Contactor.
Will let you know when this is posted.